Semi Lexical Categories by Norbert Corver, Semi Lexical Categories Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download Semi Lexical Categories books, The distinction between functional categories and lexical categories is at the heart of present-day grammatical theory, in theories on language acquisition, code-switching and aphasia. At the same time, it has become clear, however, that there are many lexical items for which it is less easy to decide whether they side with the lexical categories or the functional ones. This book deals with the grammatical behavior of such in- between-categories, which are referred to here as "semi-lexical categories".
Semi Lexical Categories by Hans Broekhuis, Organizing Grammar Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download Organizing Grammar books, Henk van Riemsdijk has long been known as one of Europe’s most important linguists. His seminal ideas have been influential in developing generative grammar in Europe and beyond. As the initiator, co-founder, and chair of the GLOW society, he made the society the leading platform of European generative linguistics. He has also been editor of the series Studies in Generative Grammar since its foundation. As a teacher and supervisor, he has inspired generations of students. On the occasion of his relocation from the Netherlands to Italy, his friends, students and colleagues celebrate his work with this collection of essays on numerous topics of current theoretical interest.
Semi Lexical Categories by Annette Hohenberger, Functional Categories In Language Acquisition Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download Functional Categories In Language Acquisition books, This study investigates the acquisition of Functional Categories from the perspective of self-organization. Syntax emerges through a major bifurcation of the dynamical language system. Dynamical notions such as precursor, oscillation, symmetry-breaking, and trigger are explanatory tools for the dynamics of early child language as evidenced in the acquisition of compounding, case-marking, finiteness, V2, wh-questions, etc. The book addresses researchers from various theoretical camps: generative, functional, connectionist, by giving new answers to old questions in the light of a novel challenging theory: self-organization.
Semi Lexical Categories by Taro Kageyama, Verb Verb Complexes In Asian Languages Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download Verb Verb Complexes In Asian Languages books, This volume is the first to present a detailed survey of the systems of verb-verb complexes in Asian languages from both a synchronic and diachronic perspective. Many Asian languages share, to a greater or lesser extent, a unique class of compound verbs consisting of a main verb and a quasi-auxiliary verb known as a 'vector' or 'explicator'. These quasi-auxiliary verbs exhibit unique grammatical behaviour that suggests that they have an intermediate status between full lexical verbs and wholly reduced auxiliaries. They are also semantically unique, in that when they are combined with main verbs, they can convey a rich variety of functional meanings beyond the traditional notions of tense, aspect, and modality, such as manner and intensity of action, benefaction for speaker or hearer, and polite or derogatory styles in speech. In this book, leading specialists in a range of Asian languages offer an in-depth analysis of the long-standing questions relating to the diachrony and geographical distribution of verb-verb complexes. The findings have implications for the general understanding of the grammaticalization of verb categories, complex predicate formation, aktionsart and event semantics, the morphology-syntax-semantics interface, areal linguistics, and typology.
Semi Lexical Categories by Gisa Rauh, Syntactic Categories Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download Syntactic Categories books, This book offers a systematic account of syntactic categories - the building blocks of sentences and the units of grammatical analysis, and explains their description in different formal as well as functional theories of language, including language typology. Its clear and balanced exposition will be widely welcomed by students.
Semi Lexical Categories by Artemis Alexiadou, Noun Phrase In The Generative Perspective Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download Noun Phrase In The Generative Perspective books, The goal of this book is twofold. On the one hand we want to offer a discussion of some of the more important properties of the nominal projection, on the other hand we want to provide the reader with tools for syntactic analysis which apply to the structure of DP but which are also relevant for other domains of syntax. In order to achieve this dual goal we will discuss phenomena which are related to the nominal projection in relation to other syntactic phenomena (e.g. pro drop will be related to N-ellipsis, the classification of pronouns will be applied to the syntax of possessive pronouns, N-movement will be compared to V-movement, the syntax of the genitive construction will be related to that of predicate inversion etc.). In the various chapters we will show how recent theoretical proposals (distributed morphology, anti-symmetry, checking theory) can cast light on aspects of the syntax of the NP. When necessary, we will provide a brief introduction of these theoretical proposals. We will also indicate problems with these analyses, whether they be inherent to the theories as such (e.g. what is the trigger for movement in antisymmetric approaches) or to the particular instantiations. The book cannot and will not provide the definitive analysis of the syntax of noun phrases. We consider that this would not be possible, given the current flux in generative syntax, with many new theoretical proposals being developed and explored, but the book aims at giving the reader the tools with which to conduct research and to evaluate proposals in the literature. In the discussion of various issues, we will apply the framework that is most adequate to deal with problems at hand. We will therefore not necessarily use the same approach throughout the discussion. Though proposals in the literature will be referred to when relevant, we cannot attempt to provide a critical survey of the literature. We feel that such a survey would be guided too strongly by theoretical choices, which would not be compatible with the pedagogical purposes this book has. The book is comparative in its approach, and data from different languages will be examined, including English, German, Dutch (West-Flemish), Greek, Romance, Semitic, Slavic, Albanian, Hungarian, Gungbe.
Semi Lexical Categories by Valentina Vapnarsky, Lexical Polycategoriality Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download Lexical Polycategoriality books, This book presents a collection of chapters on the nature, flexibility and acquisition of lexical categories. These long-debated issues are looked at anew by exploring the hypothesis of lexical polycategoriality –according to which lexical forms are not fully, or univocally, specified for lexical category– in a wide number of unrelated languages, and within different theoretical and methodological perspectives. Twenty languages are thoroughly analyzed. Apart from French, Arabic and Hebrew, the volume includes mostly understudied languages, spoken in New Guinea, Australia, New Caledonia, Amazonia, Meso- and North America. Resulting from a long-standing collaboration between leading international experts, this book brings under one cover new data analyses and results on word categories from the linguistic and acquisitional point of view. It will be of the utmost interest to researchers, teachers and graduate students in different fields of linguistics (morpho-syntax, semantics, typology), language acquisition, as well as psycholinguistics, cognition and anthropology.
Semi Lexical Categories by Jianhua Hu, Interfaces In Grammar Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download Interfaces In Grammar books, This volume is an important contribution to the theoretical and empirical study of the interactions of grammatical components in Chinese and other languages. With contributions by Edward L. Keenan, Henk van Riemsdijk, Alain Rouveret, and scholars in Chinese Linguistics, this volume investigates the common structural properties that may be considered as possible candidates for UG. It addresses syntactic and semantic issues such as anaphora universals over non-isomorphic languages, the role that the forces of attraction and repulsion play in the grammar of natural languages, computational and semantic aspects of resumption, the dichotomy between inner and outer reflexive adverbials, system repairing strategies at interfaces, the v-copy construction in Chinese, the scope of disjunction, interactions between focus, negation and event quantification, null object constructions and VP-Ellipsis, child language acquisition of nominal structure, word order and referentiality as well as second language acquisition of interface properties in Chinese double NP constructions. This volume will be of interest to students and researchers of syntax, semantics, theoretical linguistics, and language acquisition, as well as scholars in Chinese linguistics.
Semi Lexical Categories by Frank Heidermanns, Bibliographie Zur Indogermanischen Wortforschung 3 Bde Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download Bibliographie Zur Indogermanischen Wortforschung 3 Bde books, This bibliography presents the literature on the systematic issues involved in research on word formation, etymology, semasiology, onomasiology, and loanword strata in all Indo-Germanic languages, past and present, in as complete a way as possible. It is designed not only as a resource for Indo-Germanic studies proper but is of equal relevance to classical studies, Germanic studies, English studies, Romance studies, Slavonic studies, and Indology. Various indexes guide the reader through the extensive material. In the interests of research convenience, the CD-ROM included contains a cross-referential, fully hyperlinked PDF file identical with the text and the pagination of the book.
Semi Lexical Categories by Joanna Blaszczak, How Categorical Are Categories Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download How Categorical Are Categories books, This book addresses the foundational question of category distinctions and challenges the traditional views from the modern theoretical and experimental perspective. Its focus is on the noun-verb, noun-adjective distinctions and categories occupying the "grey zone" between standard categories (e.g., nominalizations). This book will be of interest for researchers and students of linguistics and cognitive sciences.
Semi Lexical Categories by Bas Aarts, Syntactic Gradience Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download Syntactic Gradience books, This is the first exhaustive investigation of gradience in syntax, conceived of as grammatical indeterminacy. It looks at gradience in English word classes, phrases, clauses and constructions, and examines how it may be recognized, defined, and differentiated. Bas Aarts considers the degree to which gradience is a grammatical phenomenon or a by-product of imperfect linguistic description, and makes a series of linked proposals for its theoretical formalization. His book will appeal to scholars and students of language and syntactic theory in departments of linguistics, philosophy and cognitive science.
Semi Lexical Categories by Marco Benincasa, A Phi Syntax For Nominal Concord Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download A Phi Syntax For Nominal Concord books, The book focusses on the grammatical feature definiteness in German, visible in the inflection of adjectives (ein schön-es Kind vs. das schön-e Kind). It argues for an analysis of this effect that draws a connection to the visible categories of number and gender on nouns and related words rather than an abstract property. This conclusion rests on the conflation of the established grammatical categories into a single one, number-gender, which explains a vast body of grammatical phenomena in German and principles of language in general.
Semi Lexical Categories by Wiltrud Mihatsch, Kognitive Grundlagen Lexikalischer Hierarchien Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download Kognitive Grundlagen Lexikalischer Hierarchien books, Begriffshierarchien auf der Basis von Inklusionsbeziehungen sind seit der Antike ein unverzichtbares Element abendländischer Wissensstrukturen und werden als zentrales lexikalisches Organisationsprinzip betrachtet. In den letzten Jahrzehnten wurde nun beobachtet, dass Konzepte der Basisebene bildhaft und autonom sind, nicht aber durch Inklusion über ihre Oberbegriffe konstituiert werden. Diese Arbeit deckt am Beispiel des Französischen, Spanischen und weiterer Sprachen auf der Grundlage von Korpora und lexikographischen Daten die Konsequenzen der Basisebene für die Organisation des Alltagswortschatzes auf. So sind Substantive unterhalb der Basisebene häufig von Basislexemen abgeleitet oder zeigen ihre Abhängigkeit in sekundär erworbenen sprachlichen Eigenschaften. Übergeordnete Substantive beruhen ebenfalls auf Basiskonzepten - nämlich auf Konjunktionen mehrerer Basiskonzepte, was diachron in ihrer Entstehung aus Kollektiva, synchron in ihrem überwiegend pluralischen Gebrauch sichtbar wird. Dem Inklusionsprinzip gehorchen lediglich Fachtermini, die unabhängig von Basiskonzepten definiert werden können, jedoch bei Aufnahme in den Alltagswortschatz ebenfalls eine Verankerung in der Basisebene erfahren, die typisch für Lexikalisierungsprozesse ist. Von dieser Tendenz unberührt sind dagegen generische Substantive wie >Ding
Semi Lexical Categories by Martina Wiltschko, The Universal Structure Of Categories Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download The Universal Structure Of Categories books, Using data from a variety of languages such as Blackfoot, Halkomelem, and Upper Austrian German, this book explores a range of grammatical categories and constructions, including tense, aspect, subjunctive, case and demonstratives. It presents a new theory of grammatical categories - the Universal Spine Hypothesis - and reinforces generative notions of Universal Grammar while accommodating insights from linguistic typology. In essence, this new theory shows that language-specific categories are built from a small set of universal categories and language-specific units of language. Throughout the book the Universal Spine Hypothesis is compared to two alternative theories - the Universal Base Hypothesis and the No Base Hypothesis. This valuable addition to the field will be welcomed by graduate students and researchers in linguistics.
Semi Lexical Categories by Jiro Inaba, Die Syntax Der Satzkomplementierung Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download Die Syntax Der Satzkomplementierung books, In theoretischen Arbeiten zur Syntax des Deutschen hat der rechte Satzrand bisher wenig Aufmerksamkeit gefunden. Die vorliegende Studie versucht diese Lucke zu schliessen. Im Mittelpunkt stehen dabei die Stellungseigenschaften satzwertiger Erganzungen, die im Deutschen (im Gegensatz zu anderen Komplementen) postverbal erscheinen. Inaba zeigt, dass die Nachfeldbesetzung nicht als uniformer Prozess zu analysieren ist. Er argumentiert dafur, dass Satzkomplemente in postverbaler Position basisgeneriert werden, wahrend die Endstellung von Relativsatzen als das Resultat einer phonologischen Umstellung betrachtet wird. Dies ermoglicht eine adaquatere Analyse von Problemfallen der deutschen Syntax wie der dritten Konstruktion und dem langen Passiv. Die Sonderstellung von Satzkomplementen, die in vielen OV-Sprachen postverbal erscheinen, wird auf die Wirkungsweise der Mechanismen zuruckgefuhrt, die hierarchische syntaktische Strukturen auf lineare Abfolgen abbilden."
Semi Lexical Categories by Christine Dimroth, Functional Categories In Learner Language Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download Functional Categories In Learner Language books, Language acquisition is a developmental process. Research on spontaneous processes of both children learning their mother tongue and adults learning a second language has shown that particular stages of acquisition can be discriminated. Initially, learner utterances can be accounted for in terms of a language system that is relatively simple. In studies on second language acquisition this learner system is called the Basic Variety (Klein and Perdue 1997). Utterance structure of the Basic Variety is determined by a grammar which consists of lexical structures that are constrained, for example, by semantic principles such as "The NP-referent with highest control comes first" and a pragmatic principle such as "Focus expression last". At some point in acquisition this lexical-semantic system is given up in favour of a target-like system with morpho-syntactic features to express the functional properties of finiteness, topicality, the determiner system, etc. Insights into how this process evolves may also provide an answer to the question of why it takes place. Within this functional perspective on language acquisition research focuses on questions such as the following. 1. What is the driving force behind the process that causes learners to give up a simple lexical-semantic system in favour of a morpho-syntactic functional category system? 2. What is the added value of morpho-syntactic properties of inflection, word-order variation, definiteness and agreement? 3. Why is it that in cases of specific language impairment it is mainly morpho-syntactic properties of the target language that are affected?
Semi Lexical Categories by Nikolaos Lavidas, Major Trends In Theoretical And Applied Linguistics 1 Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download Major Trends In Theoretical And Applied Linguistics 1 books, In the three volumes of Major Trends in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, the editors guide the reader through a well-selected compendium of works, presenting a fresh look at contemporary linguistics. Aimed at specialists or anyone interested in languages, this publication deals with both theoretical issues and applied linguistics, looking closely at discourse analysis, gender and lexicography, language acquisition and language disorders.
Semi Lexical Categories by Tilo Weber, Lexikon Und Grammatik In Interaktion Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download Lexikon Und Grammatik In Interaktion books, What are the elementary building blocks of language? Which categories can they be assigned to, based on which criteria? What function do parts of speech or lexical categories have for the speakers of a language? This study provides answers to these theoretical questions, showing on the example of German that lexical categorization is dependent on cognitive and functional conditions ― not as a static structure, but rather as a dynamic process. The empirical part of the study shows that this has consequences, especially for writers of German.
Semi Lexical Categories by Marinela Burada, Languages In Action Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download Languages In Action books, This book includes a selection of papers in linguistics presented at the 14th Conference on British and American Studies. Its tripartite structure reflects the main topics around which the nineteen contributions cluster. The first part, “Native language profiling: explorations and findings”, displays a variety of methodological approaches aimed at highlighting syntactic, morphological, and lexico-semantic aspects of, primarily, English and Romanian. The papers in the second section, “Aspects of language change, bilingualism, and cross-linguistic variation”, bring to the fore some of the topical issues falling within the ambit of language contact, such as mixed languages, bilingualism, and code-switching, as well as contrastive investigations of language structure. The research strand in the final part, “Meaning and communication within and across cultures”, relates to lexico-pragmatic inquiries into the construction of meaning, focusing on the “language beyond language”, as well as on the extent to which the lexical and pragmatic repertoires of various languages can be made to overlap.
Semi Lexical Categories by Mary Dalrymple, The Oxford Reference Guide To Lexical Functional Grammar Books available in PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Docs and Mobi Format. Download The Oxford Reference Guide To Lexical Functional Grammar books, This volume is the most comprehensive reference work to date on Lexical Functional Grammar. The authors provide detailed and extensive coverage of the analysis of syntax, semantics, morphology, prosody, and information structure, and how these aspects of linguistic structure interact in the nontransformational framework of LFG. The book is divided into three parts. The first part examines the syntactic theory and formal architecture of LFG, with detailed explanations and comprehensive illustration, providing an unparalleled introduction to the fundamentals of the theory. Part two explores non-syntactic levels of linguistic structure, including the syntax-semantics interface and semantic representation, argument structure, information structure, prosodic structure, and morphological structure, and how these are related in the projection architecture of LFG. Chapters in the third part illustrate the theory more explicitly by presenting explorations of the syntax and semantics of a range of representative linguistic phenomena: modification, anaphora, control, coordination, and long-distance dependencies. The final chapter discusses LFG-based work not covered elsewhere in the book, as well as new developments in the theory. The volume will be an invaluable reference for graduate and advanced undergraduate students and researchers in a wide range of linguistic sub-fields, including syntax, morphology, semantics, information structure, and prosody, as well as those working in language documentation and description.